Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) is capable of T-DNA transfer to plant cells. The T-DNA (transfer DNA) is located in the Ti plasmid and is capable of integration into the host plant chromosomal DNA. Integrated genes derived from T-DNA are expressed and the transformed plant cells typically develop crown gall tumor cells.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radio actor) can transfer T-DNA (transfer DNA), which is part of its own Ti plasmid, into host plant cells and insert this DNA into the plant chromosomal DNA. The inserted genes on T-DNA are expressed. By utilizing this gene-transfer mechanism, the binary vector method was invented for plant transformation. In this system, the pathogenic genes of T-DNA in Ti plasmid are replaced with selective marker genes and the exogenous target gene, to transfer the target gene into plant chromosomal DNA by means of Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.

This strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens includes the pAL4404 plasmid, which only contains the T-DNA vir region (genes responsible for vir gene induction and T-DNA transfer). LBA4404 is a widely used strain for plant transformation. This product contains competent cells for transformation by electroporation. Using A. tumefaciens and the binary vector method, you can transform various plants for infection (transfection) experiments.


Preparation of transgenic recombinant plants
T-DNA transfer to plant cells
Binary vector delivery
Highly efficient plasmid transformation
Transformation efficiency was tested using 1 ng of pRI900 DNA. Colonies were selected using kanamycin and streptomycin plates. Transformation efficiency of >5 x 106 colonies/µg of pRI900 DNA was achieved. See Section “IV. Protocol” in the User Manual for more information.

Product citations

Hoekema, A. Hirsch, P.R. Hooykaas, P.J.J. Schilperoort, R.A. A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir- and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid. Nature 303, 179–180.

Ooms, G. et al. Octopine Ti-plasmid deletion mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on the right side of the T-region. Plasmid 7:15–29 (1982).

Wen-Jun, S. & Forde, B.G. Efficient transformation of Agrobacterium spp. by high voltage electroporation. Nucleic Acids Res. 17(20):8385 (1989).

Additional product information

Please see the product’s Certificate of Analysis for information about storage conditions, product components, and technical specifications. Please see the Kit Components List determine kit components. Certificates of Analysis and Kit Components Lists are located under the Documents tab.